Canine Epilepsy

by Nancy Boland

What is Canine Epilepsy?

Epilepsy is a brain disorder that causes the dog to have sudden, uncontrolled, recurring physical attacks, with or without loss of consciousness. This may sometimes occur for unknown reasons (idiopathic) or due to genetic abnormalities. However, idiopathic epilepsy is often characterized by structural brain lesions and is more likely seen in male dogs. If left untreated, the seizures may become more severe and frequent.

Symptoms and Types

Seizures are usually preceded by a short aura whereby  the dog may appear fightened and dazed, or it may hide or seek attention. Once the seizure(s) begin, the dog will fall on its side, become stiff, chomp its jaw, salivate profusely, urinate, defecate, vocalize, and/or paddle with all four limbs. These seizure activities generally last between 30 and 90 seconds.

Seizures most often occur while the patient is resting or asleep, often at night or in early morning, and generally,the younger the dog is, the more severe the epilepsy will be. As a rule, when onset is before age 2, the condition responds positively to medication. Behaviour following the seizure, known as postictal behavior, include periods of confusion and disorientation, aimless wandering, compulsive behavior, pacing and increased thirst. Recovery following the seizure may be immediate, or it may take up to 24 hours.

canine epilepsy 1

Causes

Idiopathic epilepsy is genetic in many dog breeds and is familial; meaning that it runs in certain families or lines of animals. Some breeds that are prone to idiopathic epilepsy include the Beagle, Keeshond, Belgian Tervuren, Golden Retriever, Labrador Retriever, Vizsla and Shetland Sheepdog. The characteristics associated with genetic epilepsy usually manifests from 10 months to 3 years of age, but has been reported as early as six months and as late as five years.

Diagnosis

The two most important factors in the diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy is the age at onset and the seizure pattern (type and frequency). If your dog has more than two seizures within the first week of onset, your vet will probably consider a diagnosis other than idiopathic epilepsy. If the seizures occur when the dog is younger than six months or older than five years, it may be metabolic or intracrainal (within the skull) in origin; this will rule out hypoglycemia in older dogs.

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